A graduate of Sciences Po Paris, Sam Tanson also holds a Master's degree in Law from the University of Paris I (Panthéon-Sorbonne) and a Master's degree in International Environmental Law. After working as a journalist at RTL Radio, she continued her career as a lawyer. From 2009 to 2014, she chaired the Déi Gréng party, but her political career took off in 2013 when she became first alderwoman of the City of Luxembourg. She then joined the Council of State before becoming a member of parliament in 2018. In December of the same year, Sam Tanson joined the Government as Minister of Culture and Minister of Housing. Following a government reshuffle, she was propelled to the head of the Ministry of Justice on 11 October 2019. She then handed over the Ministry of Housing, but wished to keep her portfolio in the Ministry of Culture.